Full-spectrum vs. broad-spectrum CBD: What is the difference?
Updated: Aug 8
Is CBD legal? Hemp-derived CBD products with less than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are legal federally but still illegal under some state laws. Marijuana-derived CBD products, on the other hand, are illegal federally but legal under some state laws. Check local legislation, especially when traveling. Also, keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved nonprescription CBD products, which may be inaccurately labeled.
Full-spectrum and broad-spectrum are two of the three main types of cannabidiol (CBD) extract. The main differences concern the presence of other naturally occurring plant compounds within the extract.
Full-spectrum vs. broad-spectrum CBD
CBD is one of many compounds in the cannabis plant. Other than THC, it is the plant’s most abundant compound.
The main difference between full-spectrum and broad-spectrum CBD is the compounds they contain.
If a CBD product contains several naturally occurring cannabis plant extracts, such as terpenes and other cannabinoids — including up to 0.3% THC — it is full-spectrum CBD.
Broad-spectrum CBD also contains several cannabis plant compounds but is typically entirely free of THC. That said, there may sometimes be trace amounts of THC in broad-spectrum CBD products.
CBD Isolate is the third most common form of CBD, and this pure form of CBD contains no other cannabis plant compounds.
However, while these terms carry some meaning, CBD and related terms do not undergo much regulation, so some manufacturers may use the words interchangeably or misuse them.
There are three main ways to extract CBD from the cannabis plant. These are:
Carbon dioxide extraction: Uses CO2 to separate CBD oil from the cannabis plant. It is a popular extraction method for CBD products and can successfully produce high-concentration CBD.
Steam distillation: Manufacturers use steam to help separate the oil from the plant material. It is a popular method for extracting essential plant oils but is less effective than the CO2 method.
Solvent extraction: Although effective, this method can leave behind solvent residue, posing a potential health risk. Solvent extraction can also affect the flavor of the extract.
Lipid extraction: This process is gaining popularity, as some companies are now trying to avoid using CO2 and solvents.
After extraction, manufacturers refer to the resulting CBD oil as full-spectrum. Hemp-sourced CBD will have a THC concentration of 0.3% or less.
Additionally, the extract must undergo a cooling and purification process to convert into a CBD isolate. Further processing leaves behind a crystalline isolate or CBD crystals.
Which CBD type is best?
Someone new to CBD may prefer to begin with an isolate, as it is the purest form.
Those more familiar with CBD products may choose broad-spectrum or full-spectrum.
Those with painful joints or muscles or those looking for relaxation may opt for topical CBD products or products they can add to a bath to soak. Others may choose a more on-the-go CBD form, such as gummies or tinctures they can add to drinks.
Whichever type or product an individual chooses, they should always follow manufacturer dosage instructions carefully and contact a doctor or healthcare professional if they have any questions or notice any side effects.
Pros and cons of full-spectrum CBD
Full-spectrum CBD has numerous other cannabinoid compounds from the cannabis plant, along with low levels of THC. Usually, the THC quantities are less than 0.3% on a dry weight basis since this is the federal law requirement for CBD products.
This low quantity of THC is not usually potent enough to cause the “high” people typically associate with cannabis use.
However, THC levels can increase when manufacturers create concentrate products. For example, some tinctures can contain up to 2 milligrams (mg) per milliliter (ml) of THC, and in some cases, this can cause a euphoric effect.
Full-spectrum CBD also contains terpenes from the cannabis plant and tends to give plants their scent.
A 2020 study describes an “entourage effect” that can be produced by the vast array of compounds found within cannabis, including terpenes. Studies discussed in this work suggest that terpenes that produce the entourage effect can improve the effects of CBD, including its mood-stabilizing effects.
However, the authors note that more research is needed to investigate the benefits of adding terpenes to CBD, especially when treating conditions such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.
Pros of full-spectrum CBD
Some of the potential health effects of CBD include:
It may also ease the symptoms of some mental health conditions and provide relief from muscle spasms.
A recent study notes limited evidence on the use of CBD in dental health conditions. However, the researchers state that flavonoids and terpenes in CBD may have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or anti-microbial properties, so people may take CBD products if they have a toothache, gingivitis, or dental caries.
Cons of full-spectrum CBD
A potential disadvantage of full-spectrum CBD is that in a large enough dose, a person may feel a euphoric high.
Additionally, people who use full-spectrum CBD products may run the risk of returning a positive result on a drug test. One of the drugs that drug tests screen for is THC, which certain full-spectrum CBD products can contain.
Pros and cons of broad-spectrum CBD
Broad-spectrum CBD products also contain additional compounds from the cannabis plant, including cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene, and terpenes.
Pros of broad-spectrum CBD
CBD may have the following potential health effects:
While most broad-spectrum CBD products do not contain THC, some may have trace amounts.
Like full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD products may also have additional health benefits due to the resulting entourage effect.
Cons of broad-spectrum CBD
A potential disadvantage of broad-spectrum CBD is that it does not contain THC. This may mean it does not have as many benefits as full-spectrum CBD.
Additionally, people who use CBD products run the risk of returning a positive on a drug test. For example, broad-spectrum CBD may have trace amounts of THC, which may appear on these screenings.
Pros and cons of CBD isolate
CBD isolate only contains CBD and contains no additional compounds from the cannabis plant.
Pros of CBD isolate
People who wish to avoid THC altogether may prefer using CBD isolate products.
With CBD isolate, a person can determine if CBD alone eases their ailments effectively, as no other active compounds present can interfere or interact with its effects.
Cons of CBD isolate
However, as mentioned above, evidence suggests that CBD products containing multiple cannabis plant compounds may produce more noticeable results from the entourage effect. Additionally, CBD isolate products may not provide the same benefits.
Safety and side effects of CBD
While CBD is generally safe and people tolerate the substance well, it can cause the following side effects:
changes in alertness, such as drowsiness
increase in appetite
changes in mood, such as irritability and agitation
The FDA identified a potential risk of liver damage in the approved CBD product, Epidiolex, which treats rare seizure disorders. The FDA also noted that CBD could interact with medication.
A person who requires regular medication should always inform a doctor if they use any CBD products.
Below are some frequently asked questions about
Is CBD legal?
Hemp-derived CBD is legal federally but may be illegal under some state laws.
In contrast, cannabis-derived CBD is illegal federally but legal under some state laws.
With this in mind, people should check the laws of the state they reside in or are traveling to before purchasing and consuming CBD products.
Are CBD products FDA-approved?
The FDATrusted Source does not currently approve any CBD products apart from Epidiolex.
The agency advises people that CBD products, such as gummies, oils, and lotions, have not undergone FDA evaluation to determine what doses are safe and whether the products cause any side effects.
Can CBD help with symptoms of health conditions?
Although research on CBD is still in the early stages, many people are eager to try CBD products. Anecdotal evidence suggests some individuals have found CBD helpful in relieving ailments such as anxiety and pain.
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthTrusted Source states there is some evidence that CBD can help with certain conditions or symptoms, including:
Pain: There is some evidence CBD can provide a small benefit to those experiencing pain. However, the quality of this research is low or moderate.
Anxiety: CBD products may help reduce anxiety symptoms, including those of social anxiety disorder.
Multiple sclerosis: CBD products may help reduce spasticity in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Spasticity causes an increase in muscle tone or muscle stiffness, which can cause discomfort and pain and interfere with movement and speech.
Is full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD better for anxiety?
Research from 2019Trusted Source suggests that CBD can help with anxiety, but little research has investigated whether full- or broad-spectrum CBD is more effective for this use.
A 2021 animal study found that broad-spectrum CBD oil may help reduce anxiety and depression symptoms that develop due to trauma.
It is important to consider the ingredients in any CBD product. Broad-spectrum products can contain trace amounts of THC. Anyone who does not wish to consume any THC might opt for a CBD isolate product, which has no THC or other cannabinoids.
Is full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD better for pain relief?
Some research suggests that full-spectrum CBD may help relieve pain. For example, a 2019 study that reviewed the effects of full hemp extract CBD in people with chronic pain found that it helped improve their symptoms. More than half of the participants could reduce or stop taking opioids for pain management after using CBD for eight weeks.
2020 research also found that full-spectrum CBD may have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects. However, there is an overall lack of evidence that any type of CBD relieves pain most effectively.
Work with a doctor to address how best to treat or manage pain. A doctor can also describe whether CBD is advisable.
Does CBD show up on a drug test?
If a person uses a full-spectrum CBD product, there is a possibility of returning a positive drug test. Full-spectrum CBD products contain THC, which drug tests screen for.
Will CBD make me ‘high’?
CBD alone cannot make a person high. THC is the psychoactive compound responsible for the high feeling some people experience when using cannabis. FDA regulations mean that CBD products must contain no more than 0.3% dry-weight THC, which is insufficient for a person to feel high.
Although the current evidence suggests that full- and broad-spectrum CBD products may be more effective than CBD isolate, more research is necessary.
The presence of additional cannabis plant compounds may increase the effects of CBD products. However, because there is no current regulation of the terms “broad spectrum,” “full spectrum,” and “isolate,” it can be challenging to determine a CBD product’s exact contents.
People interested in trying CBD to ease various ailments, such as pain and anxiety, should research manufacturers that engage in third-party laboratory testing. Individuals looking to try CBD should also speak with a doctor first, as these products may have some side effects and drug interactions.
At Gulf Coast Acupuncture and Fertility, we are here to support you on your journey to being your best. Our office is minutes away from the Pensacola International Airport and is easily accessible from the I-10. Book your appointment today. (850) 331-9991
Steph Coelho and Hayley Osborne. Full-spectrum vs. broad-spectrum CBD: What is the difference? Medical News Today. Medically reviewed by Eloise Theisen, RN, MSN, AGPCNP-BC. Accessed 03/02/2023